Cancer Facts and Statistics


Breast Cancer

Cervical Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Prostate Cancer

Childhood Cancer

Oesophageal Cancer

HPV Vaccine

Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow uncontrollably, then form a malignant tumor that can invade the surrounding tissues. They can also spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymph system to form a secondary (metastatic) tumor.
Out of all cancers in Kenya, Breast Cancer leads in incidence 5 out of 10 cases of breast cancer are often diagnosed in late stage.
Who is at risk? Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it is commonly found in women.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • A lump or mass in the breast • Swelling of all or part of the breast, even if no lump is felt • Skin irritation or dimpling • Breast or nipple pain • Nipple retraction (turning inward) • The nipple or breast skin appears red, scaly, or thickened • Nipple discharge
Note: Mammography is the only screening modality shown to reduce breast cancer mortality

What can you do to prevent and control breast cancer?
• Choose a healthy lifestyle
• Know your breasts!
• Be Bold, Get Screened

Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. It is also known as bowel cancer.

Who is at risk?
Everybody is at risk of colorectal cancer. It is not known exactly what causes colorectal cancer, but there are a number ways you can lower your chances of developing the condition. These include:
• Reducing intake of red and processed meat (beef, lamb and mutton, pork, goat, sausages, bacon, canned meat)
• Lose weight in a safe and sustainable manner • Engaging in physical exercise regularly • Stopping use of all forms of tobacco and avoiding second-hand smoke exposure • Stopping/reducing alcohol intake

Symptoms of colorectal cancer
The three main symptoms of colorectal cancer are:
• Persistent blood in the stools
• Persistent change in your bowel habit – more often, with looser stools or constipation
• Most people with these symptoms do not have colorectal cancer. Other health problems can cause similar symptoms. Consult a healthcare worker if these symptoms persist. • These symptoms should be taken more seriously as you get older and when they persist despite simple treatments.
• Persistent lower abdominal (tummy) pain, bloating or discomfort – that’s always caused by eating and may be associated with loss of appetite or significant unintentional weight loss
Screening and early detection of colorectal cancer To detect cases of colorectal cancer sooner;
• Alll men and women aged 45 to 74 in Kenya should go for screening in the nearest health facility.
• With a family history of Colorectal Cancer? Visit the nearest health facility for check up at the earliest opportunity
• Seek medical care if you have persistence of the symptoms stated above.

This is a type of cancer that affects the prostate gland. The prostate is a small organ in the pelvis, found only in men. Prostate cancer usually develops slowly, so there may be no signs for many years.
According to Globocan, prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men with 2800 new cases annually in Kenya. Globally, prostate cancer has an approximate of 1.3 million new cases.

Who is at risk?
All men are at risk for prostate cancer.

Symptoms of prostate cancer
Symptoms of prostate cancer do not usually appear until the prostate is large enough to affect the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the penis (urethra).
When this happens, you may notice things like:
· An increased need to urinate
· Straining while you urinate
· A feeling that your bladder has not fully emptied
These symptoms should not be ignored, but they do not mean you have prostate cancer. It’s more likely they’re caused by something else, such as prostate enlargement.Seek medical check up immediately you experience these signs

Tests for prostate cancer
There’s no single test for prostate cancer. Multiple tests are used in to diagnose prostate cancer.

Facts & Figures
Men are not routinely offered PSA tests to screen for prostate cancer, as results can be unreliable. This is because the PSA blood test is not specific to prostate cancer. Your PSA level can also be raised by other, non-cancerous conditions. Raised PSA levels also cannot tell a doctor whether a man has life-threatening prostate cancer or not.

To help in Cancer prevention and control;
• Adopt a healthy lifestyle
• Go for prostrate cancer screening
• Look out for prostrate cancer symptoms

Cancer in children can occur anywhere in the body, including the blood and lymph node systems, brain and spinal cord (central nervous system; CNS), kidneys, and other organs and tissues.

Risk Factors
Unlike cancer in adults, the vast majority of childhood cancers do not have a known cause. However, genetic factors, a few environmental and infectious agents have been implicated.

Signs and Symptoms
Most of the signs and symptoms of childhood cancer are non-specific and require health care providers to have a high index of suspicion. These symptoms can be described using the acronym CHILD CANCER which is;
• Continued, unexplained weight loss
• Headaches, often with early morning vomiting • Increased swelling or persistent pain in the bones, joints, back, or legs
• Lump or mass, especially in the abdomen, neck, chest, pelvis, or armpits
• Development of excessive bruising, bleeding, or rash
• Constant, frequent, or persistent infections
• A whitish color behind the pupil
• Nausea that persists or vomiting without nausea
• Constant tiredness or noticeable paleness
• Eye or vision changes that occur suddenly and persist
• Recurring or persistent fevers of unknown origin.

Prevention of childhood cancers
The majority of childhood cancers are not amenable to screening. Also, unlike some adult cancers, childhood cancers are not associated with lifestyle. The emphasis therefore, in childhood cancers is early diagnosis as there is high potential for cure.
Retinoblastoma: is a hereditary disease and the most common cancer of the eye affecting children less than 5 years of age. In Kenya, it accounts for 4.8% of all childhood cancers and is estimated to have an incidence of 1 in 17,000 live births.

Screening for childhood cancers is recommended mainly for:
• Children with a family history of genetic cancers like Hereditary retinoblastoma
• Children with a history of retinoblastoma should be screened for retinoblastoma in the other eye and for other cancers

• Children should be screening for retinoblastoma
• Early diagnosis of childhood cancers can save their lives

Cancer of the oesophagus (also called oesophageal cancer) is a type of cancer that affects the oesophagus (gullet), the long tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach.
It is ranked as the second common type of cancer in male and third common among the females. Prostate cancer cancer had an estimated 4400 cases in 2018 (Globocan, 2018). Oesophageal cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer globally with an estimate of 570,000 in 2018 (Globocan, 2018).

Who is at Risk?
The exact cause of oesophageal cancer is unknown, but the following things may help decrease your risk: Stopping smoking, cutting down on alcohol, losing weight and having a healthy diet.

Symptoms of Oesophageal Cancer

Oesophageal cancer does not usually cause any symptoms in the early stages when the growth is small. Symptoms develop when the growth becomes bigger.
Symptoms of oesophageal cancer can include:
• Difficulty swallowing
• Persistent indigestion or heartburn
• Bringing up food soon after eating • Loss of appetite and weight loss
• Pain or discomfort in your upper tummy, chest or back SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE IMMEDIATELY IF YOU HAVE:
• Swallowing difficulties
• Heartburn on most days for 3 weeks or more
• Any other persistent symptoms
The symptoms can be caused by several conditions and in many cases will not be caused by cancer, but it’s a good idea to get them checked out.

Testing for those without symptoms in Kenya is recommended for:
1. People with first degree relatives diagnosed with oesophageal cancer.
2. Those previously treated for head and neck cancer.
3. People who have had caustic acid ingestion.

Every day, 9 women in Kenya die from cervical cancer.
👩🏾👱🏾‍♀️ 👩🏾 👵🏾👩🏾

This can be stopped ✋🏾

By receiving the cervical cancer vaccine now, 10-year-old girls are protected from developing cervical cancer later in life.
– Cervical Cancer doesn’t normally have any symptoms and it can be difficult to tell whether you have it.
By getting all 10-year-old girls vaccinated, we protect their future. 👩🏾‍🎓✨
– DYK: The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is an extremely common infection that can cause cancer over time. It can
be prevented through
vaccination. 💉👧🏾
Learn more about cervical cancer at ions/all-in/hpv-vaccine-info
– The cervical cancer vaccine protects young girls against cervical cancer – the leading cause of cancer death among women in Kenya.
Vaccinate to protect. 💉👧🏾
– The cervical cancer vaccine is safe and effective. 💉👧🏾

The vaccine is most effective if administered to girls before exposure to HPV.
Learn more about cervical cancer at ions/all-in/hpv-vaccine-info
– Cervical cancer vaccine will be given to all 10-year-old girls in Kenya
☑️ For maximum protection, all 10-year-old girls must receive two doses of the vaccine, six months apart.
Cervical cancer vaccination is cancer prevention.
– All 10-year-old girls will get the cervical cancer vaccine FREE at:
Public Health Facilities 🏥
Outreach posts 👩🏾‍⚕️
Learn more about cervical cancer at ions/all-in/hpv-vaccine-info
– Cervical cancer vaccination for all 10- year-old girls means protection for all girls. 💉👧🏾
Vaccinate and STOP cervical cancer.
Learn more about cervical cancer at ions/all-in/hpv-vaccine-info